The functioning of an organization on a time scale can be represented in terms of a life cycle, meaning both the procedural nature of development and its staging. As a rule, experts, despite ongoing discussions, agree that the full life cycle of an organization necessarily includes such stages as the formation of the organization, its intensive growth or “reproduction”, stabilization and crisis (recession) * And the latter stage is not necessarily must end with “death” or liquidation of the organization. It is quite possible to consider the option of its “rebirth” or “transformation”.
Life stages of the company
No company can remain in the same state for too long, but always goes through several stages of its development, each of which gives way to the next, but often not easy, but with experiencing difficulties and contradictions. There are several levels of consideration of this phasing. The periods lived by the company within the framework of similar value installations and fixing, first of all, the specifics of managerial tasks in a certain period of the organization’s functioning, we will call - stages; the periods in which an organization fundamentally changes its internal values and orientations are the development cycles.
Cyclical development of the organization
We look at the drawing on the stage "Tusovka" (figures 1-4) and understand.
The first stage in the development of an organization is its formation. At this stage it is important for the organization to find the product that can be offered to the consumer. If an organization succeeds in finding its place in the market, making the subject of its marketing popular, then it can move on to the next stage - intensive growth.
At the second stage of development, the organization grows, the volume of goods sold increases, the number of personnel, the number of branches, divisions, activities increases.
If an organization manages to stay on the wave, stabilize sources of income, gain a foothold in the market already as a full agent, then it can move to the third stage - stabilization. At this stage it is important for the organization to stabilize its activities as much as possible. To this end, she tries to reduce production costs by reducing costs and maximizing rationing her own activities. Usually, due to the variability of the market, the consumer, the life cycle of the goods offered by the organization is limited, which affects the stages of development of the organization.
At the fourth stage, after the stabilization stage, an organization can naturally move to the next stage - a crisis, which is characterized, as a rule, by a decrease in operating efficiency below profit margins, a loss of market space and, possibly, an organization’s death. An organization can continue and go back to the next development cycle only if it can find a new, attractive product for the consumer, take a new place in the market. If it succeeds, then it can be transformed in its transformed form through the stages of formation, intensive growth and stabilization, which will inevitably be replaced by a new crisis. In the development of an organization, crises are inevitable.
At each stage, the organization implements a specific development strategy **
Stages of development of the organization
After analyzing a number of long-existing companies, we paid attention to the fact that organizations go through another time cycle, longer in comparison with the cyclical nature of the stages, in which four different stages can be distinguished, with certain value settings.
At the stage of development of the organization, tusovka is put in the head of the values of interpersonal communication, creating the integrity of the company on the principles of communication, based on personal contacts. At this stage, everyone is able and must do everything.
At the stage of mechanization becomes clear and accepted principles of streamlining activities, building procedures, internal organizational structure of the company. It is on this development cycle that an organization for the first time faces the need to replace employees who fit well with the personal, informal structure, but cannot be effective specialists.
At the stage of internal entrepreneurship, the need for the maximum participation of each of the employees in the entrepreneurial process is proclaimed. Any employee of the organization should approach the implementation of their activities as an entrepreneur who presents the goods on the market. And therefore, any employee should know his client well (and internal as well), his needs and work in such a way that his product finds sales.
At the stage of quality management, it is recognized that the orientation of all to quality is necessary: each employee of the organization should attend to the problem of compliance of the final product with the wishes of the customer, and for this each intermediate product (semi-finished product) should be of the highest quality.
A look at the organization through the prism of developmental stages allows the marketer to more accurately identify its main target and strategic orientations and hellaptirovat their aspirations to the existing strategy of the company ... or look for another job, corresponding to their own level of development